It is important to understand the anatomy of the horses’ respiratory system to fully appreciate the toll respiratory diseases can have. Oxygen is essential to the survival of all mammals, the horses’ cardiovascular system accomplishes this, even at peak respiratory rate the spleen can dump its erythrocytes into the bloodstream to provide more oxygen to the body. Signs and symptoms will vary between respiratory conditions so it will be important to understand the causative factors of the different disease processes.
(please see this link for a review of the anatomy with relationships to disease)
Epiploic Foramen entrapment is when the small intestine gets trapped into a segment of itself thus restricting blood flow which in turn causes death to the tissue and toxins to be released into the bloodstream. In the article:
” Risk factors for epiploic foramen entrapment colic: An international study” by
AuthorsD. C. ARCHERG. L. PINCHBECKN. P. FRENCHC. J. PROUDMAN they indified in their research that:”Crib‐biting/windsucking behaviour was strongly associated with increased risk of EFE (OR 67.3, 95% CI 15.3–296.5). A history of colic in the previous 12 months (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.5–12.7) and horses of greater height (OR/cm 1.05, 95% CI 1.01‐1.08) were also at increased risk. The person(s) responsible for horses’ daily care (nonowner/relative/spouse OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.3–13.3) and a number of behavioural features, including response to a stimulus causing fright (easily frightened OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.1‐1.0) or excitement (sweats up easily/occasionally OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1‐0.8), reaction to their surroundings (inquisitive OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2‐0.8) and feeding behaviour when stressed (goes off food in full/part OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1‐1.0) were also associated with altered risk of EFE.”
Type of colic causing small intestine strangulation
Known Causes: Cribbing/windsucking, history of windsucking in previous 12 months, and a horse with greater height (
“The epiploic foramen is located in the right dorsal abdomen and is bordered by the vena cava, hepatic portal vein, liver and pancreas. Most incarcerations are caused by small intestine passing from the left side of the abdomen through the epiploic foramen to the right side of the abdomen. The ileum and the jejunum are the most commonly incarcerated portions of small intestine and the length of bowel affected may vary from a few centimetres up to 17m. Strangulation of the affected portion occurs as a result of entrapment in the majority of cases and approximately 80% of affected horses have irreversible vascular compromise of the herniated small intestine”(3)
Prognosis: If the cribbing cannot be controlled then the horse has an increased risk of developing this condition/ the treatment is surgical
Risk factors for epiploic foramen entrapment colic: An international study D. C. ARCHER*, G. L. PINCHBECK, N. P. FRENCH† and C. J. PROUDMAN P223-230 -( E-Article)
Purpose: The purpose of this SOP is to provide guidelines to assist in the decision, management and Prevention of Health impairment and disease management
Aim To provide up to date relevant evidence-based medical recommendations to maintain the health herd and reduce transmission of disease.
SOP 3.1 Vaccination Protocol
SOP 3.2 Health Record
SOP 3.4 Admissions to isolation and hospital barn
Signs and Symptoms relating to dental problems in the horse are as follows:
- Dropping feed
- Suddenly not eating hay or grain
- Dropping clumps of hay
- Eating with a head tilt to one side
- Increased salivation
- Weight Loss
- Difficulty accepting bridle
- Soft or hard asymetrical bony swelling to mouth
- Mouth odour
Treatment: Call your Vet for thorough dental exam.
Colic: Signs and Symptoms
Pawing at the ground with forelimb
Reaching around with the head to the flank;
Increased amount of time lying down;
Playing in the water bucket;
Continual shifting of weight on the hind limbs; and
Standing against a wall and moving infrequently.
Treatment: Calling Vet sooner than later is always advisable as colic can become worse quickly.
- Check Vital Signs, Heart rate and rectal temp
- Check stall for manure
- CALL VET
- Closely monitor your horse
- Walk your horse around
- Do not exhaust the horse
- Remove Food
- Provide plenty of water
- Medication on advice of Vet Only
- Keep Horse contained in safe area
- Consider Trailering horse to hospital
PURPOSE: the purpose of this SOP is to provide guidance in the situations where Fire is present or other safety hazards that are present on the farm and could endanger your safety or the safety of all livestock.
SOP 2.1 Fire and Safety Prevention
1. Absolutely no smoking, lit flame or source of combustion that be allowed within a 100m of barn, arena, stables hay or grain barn storage
2.1 All emergency exists shall be clearly identified and lit. Hallways and doorways shall be kept free of any and all debris. This is to maintain egress route
2.2. CSA approved and recommended fire extinguisher are to be mounted at every exit including grain and hay storage areas.
2.3. All vehicular storage areas. Shall have good ventilation, longtime storage of batteries, fuels explosive equipment materials, shall be stored in a designated yellow cabinet of steel construction.
2.4 Farm Vehicles that do not have current plates and licensing that is current will be asked to remove the vehicle from the property.
2.5 Farm vehicles that have proof of licensing and registration are asked to place oil pan or equivalent to capture leaks
Visitors to the Farm
Intent: Intent of this SOP is to reduce the spread of disease between farms and livestock transmitted by visitors.
To accomplish this:
- All visitors will sign in to the log book at the entrance of the barn,
- All Visitors shall clean hands between handling all livestock either by using the hand sanitizers provided or by washing hands with warm soapy water.
- Any person who has visited a farm immediately prior to ours, will either change footwear or disinfect the footwear worn by spraying the footwear and soles with Virkon (potassium monopersulphate) and water solution.
- Visitors will obey all posted signs and not enter any restricted area without authorization from the staff.
- Isolation areas are off-limits to all pers except staff
- National Farm and Facility Level Biosecurity Standard for the Equine Sector
- Code of Practice for the care and handling of Equines