Management of manure is a key step in controlling flies, larva and eggs, as well as minimizing odours.
The management plan will be as follows:
Stalls to be emptied of manure and bedding daily as needed and deposited into manure containment. Pastures to be cleaned of manure once a week.
Rationale: reducing the number of eggs interrupts the reproductive life cycle, and reduces population of flies
Minimal use of bedding that can absorb urine,
Rationale: bedding is slow to break down into a compostable product.
Manure will be stored and composted for use as fertilizer on the farm. Excess can be bagged and sold to the local community for profit or donated to family/community garden plots Rationale: giving back to the community is one of our pillars of success.
A vermiculture composting system will be established to ensure high quality of compost is produced.
Pest and Insect control is an important part of the horse health management.
Focus areas are: Pastures, stalls, manure pits
Rationale: Flies, larvae and eggs are found in manure that remains in pastures, stalls and manure pits. Removal of manure and proper disposal will reduce the load available for the horse to digest and thus reduce the overall load in the horse(s).
Procedure: All stalls to be cleaned a min of once per day depending on how much time is spent in stall.
Use shavings in stalls to soak up liquids,
Ensure to sweep all debris from hay and grain and dispose of in garbage bin sealed from rodents
Remove all manure from small paddocks twice a week(1)
Dispose of manure in manure pits with concrete pad. Disposing of manure in a field contributes to the problem, as rain soaks ground, runoff is created, manure now becomes breeding ground for flies and larvae) (2)
(1) Zimmel, D. (2009). Ch. 5: Equine wellness program. In D. Reeder et al. (Eds.), AAEVT’S Equine manual for veterinary technicians (summary of parasite control measures p142)
Visitors to the Farm
Intent: Intent of this SOP is to reduce the spread of disease between farms and livestock transmitted by visitors.
To accomplish this:
- All visitors will sign in to the log book at the entrance of the barn,
- All Visitors shall clean hands between handling all livestock either by using the hand sanitizers provided or by washing hands with warm soapy water.
- Any person who has visited a farm immediately prior to ours, will either change footwear or disinfect the footwear worn by spraying the footwear and soles with Virkon (potassium monopersulphate) and water solution.
- Visitors will obey all posted signs and not enter any restricted area without authorization from the staff.
- Isolation areas are off-limits to all pers except staff
- National Farm and Facility Level Biosecurity Standard for the Equine Sector
- Code of Practice for the care and handling of Equines
Purpose of this biosecurity plan is to reduce the incidence and impact of disease within the farm population. As well as reduce spread of disease between farms
To achieve this, we will monitor our practices by using the Equine Guelph Biosecurity Risk Calculator three times a year. Keeping a copy of the printed results will enable us to quantify and qualify our progress.
Identifying the disease risks for the farm and facility and how they are transmitted, as well as how to mitigate an outbreak should one occur, will assist us in keeping any illness to a minimum
Review management practices after each assessment.
Keep detailed health records of each horse.
Keep a sign in log of all visitors to the property.
- National Farm and Facility Level Biosecurity Standard for the Equine Sector, section 4 and 5
- Code of Practice for the care and handling of Equines, section 4 Health Management
- Equine Guelph Biosecurity calculator, http://www.equineguelph.ca/Tools/biosecurity_2011.php
Action Point: Keep confidence index for skills from beginning of the course in mind while I go through the units.
Rationale: Help to focus on the big picture for the course, if there are times when the details are overwhelming.
- Identify the value of effective communication as it pertains to your horse’s health; 8
- Identify individual needs of your horse regarding health management and disease prevention;6
- Identify common health problems and strategies available to prevent and/or manage them; 5
- Perform a daily health check and relay important data to your veterinarian that will aid in the health and welfare of your horse; 5
- Analyze biosecurity risks and determine the factors needed for infectious disease prevention strategies; 7
- Differentiate when immediate medical aid may be required or not, and identify first aid measures in different emergency scenarios; 6
- Ask your veterinarian educated questions, and discuss problems relating to your horse’s health in an informed manner so that you may assist in the formulation or revision of your preventative health program 6
- Find, interpret and critically appraise new information in order to update your background knowledge on a topic of interest. 6
Action Point: Compile and keep accurate Health Records of all horses that are kept on the premises for greater than 24 hrs
Rationale: All health records need to be reviewed, kept up-to-date and accessible, in order to establish and maintain appropriate standard operating procedures for the farm.
Health Records for each horse shall contain the following:
General Information sheet, name, breed. age, owners contact info.
Case History record
This S.O.P covers the actions and protocols to follow in the event of fire in the barn or indoor arena. It is of critical importance to Establish, educate and practice fire evacuation protocols.
Rationale: Established evacuation routes, predetermined protocols for actions, and an awareness meeting and regular drills for all staff will ensure the policies can be enacted calmly and effectively if needed.
More detailed plan:
- Establish evacuation routes for all locations within all structures and assign a meeting place for all staff and horses to gather where a head count will be done.
- Ensure all staff are aware of this policy and hold Fire drills regularly to keep staff refreshed on policy. Coordinate with local Fire Marshall for fire extinguisher training on semi-annual basis to ensure any new staff have received the training
- Post clear instructions on Evacuation Routes and ensure fire extinguishers and firefighting equipment are accessible and their location is clearly identified.
Action Point: Establish a Health Management Plan
Rationale: Establishing protocols, in consultation with my vet, for management areas will optimize health and reduce risks for disease or miscommunication relating to the welfare of our horses.
More detailed plan:
IAW Recommended Practices (Ref 1)
Health Management Plan will include:
- Protocols for Biosecurity (SOP 5.0 and 5.1)
- Protocols for Disease Prevention, Detection and Treatment (SOP 1.0)
- Protocols for Pest and Insect control
- Schedule for Vaccinations and Parasite Control Strategies
- Staff Training
- Vet Contact information for emergencies
Ref 1: Code of Practice For The Care and Handling of Equines, Section 4- Health Management Plans
Action Point: Establish vaccination protocols
Rationale: Purpose and intent of this SOP is to provide direction on the vaccination of horses within the herd, to increase resistance to disease
- In consultation with the vet, a vaccination schedule for each horse shall be outlined and recorded in the horses’ health record. (1)
- Broodmares are to receive appropriate vaccines for this area.
- Foals will also receive proper vaccinations with primary and booster vaccines
- any adverse effects to the vaccine shall also be recorded as well as the vaccines serial , lot number and expiry dates. (2) Rationale: Recording this information will be useful in the event of a reaction and if the vaccine itself is recalled.
1.National Farm And Facility Level Biosecurity Standard for the Equine Sector, Section 4 Principles of Infection Prevention and Control Programs, Methods of Pathogen Transmission,
2. Code of Practice for the care and handling of Equines, Section 4.1.2 Vaccines